Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Use tables or graphs to illustrate the price stability performance of Japan Essay Example

Use tables or graphs to illustrate the price stability performance of Japan Essay Japans economic slump, which began with a stock market crash in 1989, now lies in its fourth recession in ten years. The Asian banking and financial crisis has had a profound effect on this, the second largest economy in the world. Japanese under performing banks are carrying Yen150 trillion ($1.3 trillion) of bad loans. State-run corporations are dragging productivity down, unemployment is rising and Japanese consumer confidence remains low. Macroeconomic policy is proving highly unstable as Japans illness that of deflation remains predominant. Price stability is defined as the sustained absence of both inflation and deflation. (Mc Aleese: p.294, 2001). Further economic agents can make decisions regarding economic activity without being concerned about the fluctuation of the general price level. Along with effective fiscal policy, the control of government spending, low unemployment levels, controlled interest rates and hence inflation rates, macroeconomic policy is maintained. The most serious aspect of Japans economic sickness is deflation. Japans paralysis, where ineffective control measures have had many negative results, will now be discussed. Price Stability: We will write a custom essay sample on Use tables or graphs to illustrate the price stability performance of Japan specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Use tables or graphs to illustrate the price stability performance of Japan specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Use tables or graphs to illustrate the price stability performance of Japan specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Price stability, or rather instability in Japans case, is characterised by the prolonged presence of deflation. The stock market is hovering around a 19 year low. The Nikkei 225, the most commonly used Share Price Index, had stood at 14 times the Dow through the 1980s. However in February 2002 it dropped below the Dow Jones Industrial for the first time since 1957. Japans persistent decline in the general price level is again indicated by the Consumer Price Index. Prices have shown a 1% fall per annum. These falling price levels have increased real debt burdens. National debt stands at over 130% of GDP ( Also Japans banks are chronically weak and burdened by duff loans of Yen37 trillion, about 7% of GDP. So Japanese banks have been left carrying excess bad loans, forcing them to cut lending. Together with depressed consumer spending it has proved impossible for the Bank of Japan to deliver the negative real interest rates that the economy needs to revive demand. Interest rates in Japan stand at virtually 0%. However most companies are not investing but paying down their debts (mentioned above). This adverse impact on investment is also due to the fact that real long-term interest rates in Japan have reached high percentages. The fact that interest rates stand at zero has kept inefficient firms afloat and delayed restructuring. This has contradicted Japans bust advantage. Structural adjustment and creative destruction can prove positive outcomes of negative fluctuations. However, rigid labour and product markets, along with the Japanese keiretsu relationship have hindered the weeding out of inefficient firms. Simultaneously, low interest rates have led to low inflation rates (-0.6% in 2001). This has reflected weak demand and thus the economic slowdown. These supply-side factors, such as the intensification of global competition and deregulation, have put additional downward pressure on prices. This is contributing to the high debt ratio and subsequent price destruction. This bout of recession and deflation has not only had negative impact on CPI, share prices, investment and inflation but also on property prices. Since 1991, commercial property prices have dropped by an average of 84% in Japans six biggest cities ( Housing demand has also collapsed since 1996. Analysis: It remains evident that Japans economy lies in uncertainty, where consistent unstable price performance has given rise to the lost decade. Its current situation comprises of internal factors (e.g. buyer uncertainty) and external factors (e.g. the U.S. current bubble burst). These counter-cyclical variables have had the following negative effect the decrease in economic activity in Japan has led to the increased unemployment rate (+5.3%), bankruptcies, non-performance loans etc. Analysing Japans current prolonged crisis, it becomes evident that it displays attributes of Keynesian economics. The existing shifts in aggregate demand, the low rate of investment and price rigidities, all clearly display this. Price stability is an indispensable prerequisite to ensure sustainable development of the economy (Masaru Hayami, Governor Bank of Japan). 77 year-old Mr. Hayami however has failed so far to deliver such a position. This political paralysis, where political resistance to reform is demonstrated, is hindering Japans recovery. Again, the current Japanese Prime Minister, Junichiro Koizumi (elected April 2001), who unveiled a series of economic reforms has met with little success against this rigid political system, resistant to reform. Furthermore his termination of Makiko Tanaka (his Foreign Minister) in January 2002, along with his lack of co-operation with Economics Minister, Heizo Takenaka, has left Japan still in search of a cure. Is there Evidence of Inflation or Deflation in Japan at the moment? What problems might be associated with very low inflation or deflation? Deflation is defined as the persistent decline in the general price level of goods and services1. The most common measure of inflation statistics is the Consumer Price Index (CPI). In Japan, this has fallen at a rate of about 1% since 1999. If the GDP Deflator is used this deflationary trend can be traced back to 1995. The difference between potential and actual GDP is called the output gap. This is another indicator of price stability (or instability). Price stability is defined as the sustained absence of deflation (falling prices) and inflation (rising prices). It is fundamental to the second pillar of the new consensus, macroeconomic stability. Therefore policy makers welcome disinflation and low inflation. Owing to the bias2 in constructing CPI indices, an inflation rate of 0-2% has become acceptable. There are certain costs of changing prices regardless of whether these are due to high inflation or deflation. There is a loss in efficiency as menu costs and shoe leather costs are incurred. Additionally, the necessary fiscal and monetary policies required to attain stability are costly. More specifically, why is deflation problematic? Initially, falling prices seem like a good thing and people feel as if they have more money in their pockets to spend. Even those on a fixed income, (state pensions, social welfare) benefit from an increase in real income. In spite of all this, the far-reaching contagion effects of deflation mean it is a phenomenon to be avoided. Rather than spending more on the goods, which they can now afford, a continuous fall in prices means that consumer and investor spending actually slows down. Consumers and businesses are reluctant to buy goods, which they expect to drop in value in the near future. Such speculation curbs investment and saving increases. In an effort to encourage borrowing for investment, nominal interest rates fall and approach zero. Since the nominal interest rate is the opportunity cost of holding money, savings further increase. This fall in investment demand and activity retards economic growth. Furthermore, since the nominal interest rate cannot fall below zero, the real interest rate will always be positive. In times of deflation, the burden of debt therefore increases. It would seem that lenders gain and borrowers lose. The problem for lenders occurs when debt rises too high and borrowers cannot afford repayments. Banks who earn profits through loan repayments cannot attract big borrowers. T his type of debt deflation is the main problem in the Japanese economy today but is also reminiscent of the Great Depression in the 1930s. In times of low economic growth, it is typical to lower the currency value thereby making exports more attractive to foreign investors. However, the low nominal interest rates induced by deflation have caused foreign demand for the Yen to rise. The Yen remains strong and exports remain relatively expensive. On the whole, wages are accepted to be ratchet. This means that even if prices are falling, the nominal wage rate will not fall. Higher debt repayments and squeezed profits mean that the pressure on companies to cut costs is twofold. This leads to a Darwinian shake-out as companies see job cuts as the only option to save on costs. Deflation is clearly at the root of Japans failing economy. Policy makers must now look to the formulation and implementation of an effective plan to fight deflation if there is any hope of a recovery.

Friday, March 6, 2020

5 Super Tips On How to Get Your Resume Noticed

5 Super Tips On How to Get Your Resume Noticed You’ve come of age in the era of social media. Which probably means you assume everything can be done online: networking, socializing, job applications. And that’s more or less true. But there’s one vestige of the old world that will still be crucial to you in finding yourself a satisfying job: a resume. Don’t be fooled into thinking you don’t need one. Everybody does. Do concern yourself with making sure your resume gets in the right hands. It doesn’t have to be perfect; you’ll likely tinker with it for the entirety of your career. But you need to start somewhere. Here are five tips for how to get your resume noticed and read, so you can get that job and get your start.1. Think like a computerYour cover letter and your interview need to be geared towards the human recruiters who’ll be reading it. Your resume, on the other hand, will probably be read first by a search engine. Keep that simple fact in mind and gear your document to get through the machines.2. OptimizePart of this strategy means using the right words to get through the computer programs that will sort your resume. Part of it is simply making sure you’re showing a hiring manager that you can do the job. Start by reverse-engineering the job description and peppering your resume with the keywords necessary to showcase your skills. You can also create a â€Å"core competencies† section at the top and listing your most valuable skills there. And if you have to cheat, and include keywords for skills you don’t quite have, you can try putting them in in white font, so computer searches will pick up on it, but human recruiters won’t see that text.3. Make it easyMake sure to get all the basics covered: school, major, GPA, objective. When writing your objective, err on the side of specifics. Don’t just say you want a great job doing great things; make sure to let the recruiter know you mean business. Be clear about th e location and the industry you’re looking for. Take the guess work out of it.4. Go electronic with your cover letterMore often than not, you’re going to need to email a cover letter rather than sending the traditional hard copy. Again, there’s no guarantee a human is going to see it. But you shouldn’t cut any corners all the same. Start with as personal an opening as possible- whether a friend referred you, or you have a mutual acquaintance, or you have a particular affinity for this particular position. Then use the rest of the message to contextualize the bullet points on your resume. Again, be as specific as possible.5. Think â€Å"means to an end†Your resume doesn’t have to be perfect. It doesn’t have to do everything. But it does need to be attention-grabbing. And it needs to present your brand clearly and effectively to the people who will hire you. Be honest and showcase your unique qualities and talents and you’ll do f ine.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Rise of the middle class in Latin America Research Paper

Rise of the middle class in Latin America - Research Paper Example Venezuela is the most urbanized and largest economy of Latin America whereas Argentina is the second largest and Colombia holds the third position, in terms of GDP (Venezuela Analysis, 2013). Latin America puts huge emphasize on economic integration since the inception of Latin American Free Trade Association and Central American Common Market in 1960s. In fact, the economy has undergone various structural changes due to the effect of a number of economic influences such as World Wars, financial crisis in 2008 and several ongoing civil wars. However, the internal economic development program of this continent has been uninterrupted by the policies taken by the economy such as import substitution by industrialization and public investment on health sector (Balderston, Gonzalez and LÃ ³pez, 2000). All these factors have led the economy to experience population explosion. Moreover, as the education system and employment opportunities began to expand combining with enhanced social secur ity, the economy experienced rise of middle class society in Latin America. The paper will explore the nature and determinates of economic growth and rise of middle class in Latin America, especially concentrating on the three biggest economies of the constitute such as Venezuela, Argentina and Colombia as well as possible consequences of such social transformation. Since decades, poverty continued to be the main challenge for the economy of Latin America. However, after experiencing a long series of stagflation, the population of Latin America started expanding and overtimes the middle class evolved in a major proportion of the population. Prior to this, the demographics of Latin America were characterized by the presence of vulnerable income group, suffering from economic insecurity (LÃ ³pez-Calva and Juarez, 2013). However, over a period of time, economic growth as well as

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Do social networks encourage sport participation Dissertation

Do social networks encourage sport participation - Dissertation Example Individuals started to build online persona. In reality, some information is very confidential to the extent no one would want to share with their family and certainly not with a professional hiring manager. Individuals are using this new data base in of personal information in questionable ways ethically. The lack of regulations, clear guidelines, has led to dissemination of information across the internet for a purpose other than that intended. Employment screening is one of the more infringements to the rights to Facebook users. This is a paper that responds to the question: do social networks encourage sport participation? List of Contents Introduction Aim and objectives Rationale Literature review and theoretical framework Methodology Findings, Analysis and Evaluation Final discussion and Recommendations Recommendations for further research Do social networks encourage sport participation? Introduction Social Media is a great way to encourage sport participation by spreading the word about local sports and other general physical activity programmes. Social media can be used as a tool to further participation in sports. A social networking service is an online platform, or site that is used for social interaction. They focuses on facilitation of building social relations or social networks among people sharing same interests, backgrounds, real-life connections or sporting activities. A social network service is constituted of each user (often represented through a profile), the individual’s social links, and some additional services. Most social network services are web-based and provide an online form of interaction among the users through the Internet. Nowadays the world is changing rapidly and marketing styles should follow people trends. Social media has become a platform that is easily accessible to anyone with internet access. Increased communication for organizations fosters brand awareness and often, improved customer service. Also, social me dia is a cheap and effective platform for organizations to implement marketing campaigns. Social networking websites allow people to interact with each other and build relationships. Business organisations join these sites, so that people could interact with the product or company. That interaction feels personal to users because of their previous experiences with social networking site interactions. Social networking users are allowed to â€Å"retweet† or â€Å"repost† comments made by the product being promoted. In consequence, when people repeat the message, that company posted, all other users are able to see the message, therefore reaching more people. What is more, through social networking sites like Facebook or Goolge+, organizations can create their own group, where interested people follow the company and see different news and promotions1 every day, when simply checking their social feeds. As well as, the organisation itself can choose who to invite into the ir group, thereby reaching narrow target market. Cell phone is another aspect of social media marketing that makes it even more effective..Today, many cell phones have social networking capabilities: individuals are notified of any happenings on social networking sites through their cell phones, in real-time. This constant connection to social networking sites means products and companies can constantly remind and update followers about their

Monday, January 27, 2020

The Issue Of Handphone In School English Language Essay

The Issue Of Handphone In School English Language Essay   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Handphone has become indispensable gadget, an absolute necessity for both adults and children. Like every other invention of man, whether or not to allo the use of handphones in Malaysian schools is not an easy yes-or- no issue. This is the dilemma of the authorities.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   If properly used, the handphone can bring more benefits than harm especially to children. When television first made its debut in the 1960s, everybody imagined that it would have a negative effect on children. Parents fret over their childrens addiction to the idiot box and the neglect of their studies. Their fears were unfounded as they soon found that if strictly contolled, the television was as harmless as the radio or the gramophone.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In more recent times, the same anxiety greeted the advent of computers, especially the Internet. Today, the Internet has becomean essential tool and we cannot imagine a life without computers. Like the computers, the handphone has many advantages, while an abuse of it can have disastrous results. Handphones are useful tools of communication. Parents and children can keep in touch with each other and any last mintue change of plans can be conveyed easily without any trouble to either party. Some children however, cite this as a loss of privacy as parents will have a 24-hour access to their children   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Parents say the handphone is more than a convenience-it is an essential item that can function as a tracker divece. With it they can monitor their children and check on their whereabouts via satelite. Thus, from whereevr they are, paretns can ensure the safety of thier children and avoid incidents like kidnapping and such crimes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Education Ministry officials, school authorities and many parents believe that allowing handphones in schools would only widen the disparity between the haves and the have-nots among students. Handphones come in a variety of shapes, colours and function:from generic ones to highly sophisticated ones that double up as camers, video cameras and palm tops. Not every child in school comes from middle or upper class families that can afford to buy each child a handphone. The self esteem of children who do not own a handphone or who possess a basic one wii be affected. Low esteem among students would cause a rift among children. Cliques, jealousy and rivalry would result. This unhealthy situation should not be nurtured in a school. Instea, the school environment should promote equal opprotunities and equal treatment.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Another reason for the strong outcry against allowing studentsto bring handphones to school is the distraction it poses. SMSes, games and ringing tones are some of the distractors that take the students attention away from the lesson. Children being children will not be able to resist the temptation of answering calls and sending messages when they should be listening to the teacher or classes, the games available on the phone is something the students would resort to after classes to overcome boredom.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Apart from diverting students attention, the handphones can threathen the validity of school examinations. Students may cheat durin examinations via text messages. Information or answers can be passed from one student to the next while examiners may be totally oblivious of the cheating that happen.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Finally, even adults find it hard to exercise social etiquette and discretion in the use of handphones, therefore children cannot be expected to do any better. Despite explicit messages in movies threatres, at meetings and at formal meetings, we still hear phones ringing away. School administrators and discipline teachers would find it difficult to to effectively prohibit students from using their phones during lessons.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   If Ministry of Education lifts the ban on handphones, schools may come up with new rules or guidelines to control the use of the handphone. Inevitably, teacher will be burdened with the task of monitoring the use and misuse of the handphone. All this is additional stress for teachers who are already loaded with heavy responsibilities. The Malaysian school system has thrived so far even with handphones being banned from schools. Why sudden change of heart?!61F13D5E0ECD31F0!521.entry Cell Phones at School: Should They Be Allowed? by Maya Cohen The question of whether cell phones should be allowed in schools has been hotly debated over the years. Most school administrations regard cell phone use as disruptive and distracting, and have implemented policies that prohibit using them on school grounds. There are benefits to giving your kids cell phones for use outside of school, but before you add them to your family plan, read the pros and cons: The Pros You can be in touch with your children, and know their whereabouts. Your kids can reach you in the event of an emergency, and vice versa. If in danger, your children can reach the authorities or a medical provider. Phones can be silenced during class or study periods, and active only in appropriate places. Cell phones create a convenience that was previously unavailable. With cell phones, you can easily reach your kids for any reason: to ask them questions, change plans, or to simply say hello. The Cons Students often forget to turn off their phones in class, and ringing noises or text-message alerts disrupt learning. Even if set to silent, cell phones can still cause distraction, since text messaging has become a high-tech method of passing notes in school. Students have been known to use cell phones to call in bomb threats to schools, to avoid or condense class time. In the event of a widespread crisis, rampant cell phone use can overload communication systems and render them inoperable. Student cell phone networks add to the spread of rumors and misinformation, which can be harmful during a widespread crisis. Phones can be used as cheating devices during exams. The long-term physical effects of cell phone use are still undetermined. There are compelling arguments on both sides of the debate, and both enthusiasts and critics make convincing points. What do you think? Take our poll: POLL: Should schools allow cell phones? In fact, the real decision regarding cell phones lies with parents. Short of checking each and every backpack, school officials can only enforce cell phone bans if they catch a student with a prohibited device. Would you allow your child to bring a cell phone to school? Share your opinion in our poll: By MALLIKA VASUGI WHEN initial reports about students being allowed to use handphones in schools were first released, many teachers were incredulous.    There were already enough problems in schools where the ruling against handphones was strictly enforced. With the lifting of the ban, all hell was bound to break loose.    We shuddered in our staff rooms, imagining the consequences.    It was a great relief therefore when the announcement to renew the handphone ban came shortly after that although there were a few raised eyebrows and wry comments passed about the now its on-now its off thing.    During the period between the first and second announcements, many letters to the editor were written and opinions given about the ruling both in favour of, and against, the bringing of handphones to schools.    While teachers were generally opposed to the idea, some parents were pleased.    Times have changed, one parent wrote. We need to keep in touch with our children. How else will they reach us in case of emergencies? One colleague remarked, The way some parents go on, you would think their offspring came into the world clutching handphones to their ears.    Many teachers laughed quietly when further restrictions on the use of the handphone were outlined.    Only during break time, in the canteen or school compound, not during lessons.    As teachers smack in the middle of this issue, with first-hand knowledge of the problems caused by handphones despite school rules against it, it is difficult not to be sceptical. Besides being an effective examination cheating tool and major distraction during the teaching-learning process, handphone text messages have also replaced the classic love-letter to the girl in the last row.    Thats an understatement, said another friend who is the discipline master in his school.    Remember the old school boy trick of yesteryear involving strategically placed pencil-sharpener mirrors. Just imagine what they can do with camera-phones these days.    And do you know what the worst part is?    Some of the models in the lewd, almost pornographic, camera-phone shots are our students. Makes you wonder what the root of all this moral decadence is, doesnt it?    Of course banning the handphone in schools does not mean all these problems are going to be solved. Cheaters will still cheat and inappropriate behaviour in girl-boy relationships will still continue.    Besides, asked another parent, Wouldnt it be unfair to students who genuinely need to have the handphone with them? What about kids with medical problems who need to be in constant contact with their parents?    School administrators have never been unaware of this situation and for that reason, there are always teachers on duty everyday to deal with emergencies such as sending students home, to the hospital, contacting parents and so on.    Some schools I know even allow students to bring their handphones to school but they have to turn the phones in to the school authorities throughout the school session.    You know what really amazes me? said my discipline teacher friend.    Every time we conduct a spot-check and confiscate handphones, parents who have never attended any school function, never turned up on open day to check on their childs progress throughout the school year, are at the school office within half an hour of notification, pleading with us to return the handphones to their children.    Another point brought up by the no handphones in school proponents was the possible feelings of resentment, envy or even feelings of inferiority which may arise when students begin comparing handphone models in schools.    Like most of our material possessions that start out as needs, handphones have become a sort of status symbol for some.    Parents know this when their teenagers tearfully plead for the over RM1,000 model that every other kid has.    Imagine a kid who applies for the Textbook Loan Scheme because his father earns less than RM1,000 a month, sitting next to a student flashing the latest Nokia N90 which cost his dad RM2,500.    Most of us teachers especially, are glad that the issue is finally settled and the ban remains effective.    But we know some of the negative comments that are bound to be made by those less satisfied with the ruling.    Teachers should not blame handphones for discipline problems.    It is the teachers job to ensure students pay attention in class and do not play with handphones. Teachers should not shirk their responsibilities or pass the buck, and so on and so forth.    I wish someone would teach us teachers how to keep a student awake in class when he has been working part-time until 2am to pay for the luxury items he needs, handphones of course being at the top of the list.    While we are at that, I also wish someone would teach us teachers how to prevent students from using vulgarities in school when they use them all the time at home.    Or tell them it is not okay to cheat although this allows them to get what they want.    Or that it is morally wrong to flash an expensive Samsung D500 in front of another kid whose parents cannot afford to give him lunch money. By KAREN CHAPMAN PETALING JAYA: The Education Ministrys decision to lift the ban on handphones in schools from this year has generally caused an uproar.    Director General of Education Datuk Dr Ahamad Sipon cited the increasing number of students owning handphones due to cheaper service charges and handsets as the reason for lifting the ban.    Basically, the Education Ministry does not want to prevent the usage of handphones in school. But their use by both teachers and students must be controlled so that the teaching and learning process is not disrupted, he said in a circular.    RING IT IN Yim Pheng Lets not panic unnecessarily with the lifting of the ban. Lets see what happens first. If there are problems as a result of the directive, I am sure the Education Ministry can then review the situation.    Schools should also have their own rules on the matter.    SMK La Salle (Petaling Jaya) principal A Rajenthran I welcome the ministrys lifting of the ban. We allowed students to bring their handphones last year for convenience and security reasons.    Many parents want to be able to contact their children. They also want their children to be able to contact them in case of an emergency.    We set up a process where students who want to bring their handphones can do so, but they have to first register with us.    We cannot run away from the fact that handphones make things extremely convenient these days.    Parent Abu Kadir Abdullah, 49 All of us in the family keep in touch with each other via handphones, so in this ICT (information and communication technology) age, having handphones will help us communicate faster better.    Parent K.K. Wong, 43 In this day and age where both parents are busy working until late in the day they have to depend on the handphone to keep in touch with their children in school. It is no more just a gadget to show off, it has become a necessity.    Many parents can attest to the fact that it has helped them in their lives. School authorities should make sure students help us communicate faster and better.    CALL IT OFF Parent V. Gunasekaran I am really scared for my daughter. Some IT savvy boys may take funny pictures of girls and circulate them through the MMS. The Ministry should have a rethink.    Senior assistant Mary Goh We have a strict ban on handphones. I really dont see a need for students to bring them to school. There are enough public telephones in school and if there is an emergency, they can always use the office telephone.    Although we are very strict, and will confiscate the phones if we catch them with one, some still manage to sneak them into school. Its really not a good idea.    Principal Suzana Ahmad I am concerned because bringing handphones to school will distract students from concentrating on their studies.    Students are here to learn but they may be unable to resist the urge to check their phones for messages every now and then.    After teaching for many years in urban schools, I can tell you that children in these areas can be very sneaky and may put their phones on silent mode in class.    Teacher R. Usha I agree it is not a good move. I am worried about the impact on those who do not have handphones.    Children from wealthier backgrounds may possess state-of-the-art phones while the poorer ones may have something simpler or none at all. This will cause jealousy and may even result in thefts.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Alternative Learning System Essay

Introduction The Alternative Learning System or ALS is a parallel learning system that provides a viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction (Guerrero, 2007, p. 2). It is a program by the Department of Education (DepEd), through its Bureau of Alternative Learning System that helps disabled people, cultural minority members, out-of-school youth, former inmates and/or rebels, industry-based workers, and others who cannot afford or missed the opportunity to go through formal elementary and secondary schooling. It was first called Non-Formal Education when it began in 1984. Its main focus back then was to help its students acquire technical skills that they can use for livelihood. Its focus diversified after its name was changed into Alternative Learning System in 2004. It now includes literacy classes that are aimed at eventually offering elementary and high school diplomas to students who have the same above-mentioned backgrounds. Legal Foundations The source of the ALS educational system can be traced to the basic and  fundamental law of the land. The 1987 Philippine Constitution provides for a free and compulsory elementary education and free secondary education through DepEd. Also, the Governance of the Basic Education Act of 2001, which is also known as Republic Act No. 9155, dictates that it is the primordial duty of the State, through DepEd to promote and protect the right of the citizens to quality education and shall initiate steps to ensure the accessibility of education to all. Among many of its provisions, this law recognizes ALS as a â€Å"complement of formal education and a major component of basic education with a clearly defined role within the overall educational goals (Guerrero, 2007, p. 9).† The Executive Order 356 of 2004 renamed DepEd’s Bureau of Non-Formal Education to the Bureau of Alternative Learning System (BALS). Not only does this Order repeat the bureau’s mandate to address the learning needs of marginalized learners, but it also directs BALS to provide a systematic and flexible approach to reach all types of learners outside the school system. In the 80’s, the global community launched a campaign called Education for All (EFA) that aimed to eradicate illiteracy and promote functional literacy for all peoples of the world by the year 2015. The Philippines was a signatory to this and as such, committed to providing education for all Filipinos and resulted to the formulation and adoption of the Philippine EFA 2015. The goal is to have in place a credible ALS that will increase functional literacy among the marginalized groups of learners. The country also affirmed its commitment in reducing poverty and any form of human deprivation as outlined in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which is also aimed to be attained by the year 2015. DepEd is primarily tasked to implement the 2nd major goal of the MDG which is to achieve universal education. In summary, the EFA plan for 2015 distributes urgent tasks that will guide DepEd in fulfilling the spirit of RA 9155 and EO 356, and ultimately the vision of the 1987 Philippine Constitution. It embodies the various programs, projects, and activities necessary to achieve the goal of quality ALS for all marginalized Filipino learners. ALS in Cagayan de Oro City DepEd, in close coordination with the city government of Cagayan de Oro,  implemented the program of ALS in the city and aims to attain the indicators and goals of Education for All (EFA) 2015 and of the UN Millennium Development Goals. Since 2007, the city government, as part of its implementation strategy, has been conducting advocacy socialization and mobilization in all its Barangays through the ALS Coordinators in order to determine the number of out-of-school youth, illiterates, and school leavers. Massive information campaigns were conducted. Consultations and meetings were also initiated discussing the importance and benefits that may be derived from the literacy program by focusing on the empowerment of the learner and of his/her potentials towards personal growth as he/she participates in the development of his/her community. As a beneficiary of technical assistance from World Bank through the League of Cities of the Philippines (LCP), the city government has formulated its own City Development Strategy (CDS), which serves as the guide in implementing its various   programs and projects. The ALS ranked third among the top priority programs and projects reflected in the CDS.  Various City Ordinances, Resolutions, Executive Orders and others were passed and issued to support the implementation of ALS. Through the Local School Board (LSB), all the Barangays in Cagayan de Oro City are major stakeholders supporting the various local departments and offices assigned by law to attain the goals of the program. The local Special Education Fund (SEF) and other available resources of the city government provides certain appropriation to support the program through the construction of training venues, the salaries of the employees, coordinators and teachers, acquisition of equipments and supplies, and others. The ALS program was implemented in the 57 urbanized and 23 rural Barangays in Cagayan de Oro City since 2007. Of the Barangays covered, the program faced some problems especially in the 11 hinterland Barangays of the 1 st Congressional District of Cagayan de Oro City. These Barangays are agricultural areas and have a relatively higher incidence of poverty and unemployment. These are: Pagalungan, Tagpangi, Taglimao, Tuburan, Pigsag-an, Tumpagon, Bayanga, Mambuaya, Dansolihon, Tignapoloan and Besigan. These are the areas we are  focusing on in our P.P.B.S. paper and presentation. The Problem The ALS in our paper is meant to reduce the illiteracy rate in the said localities by providing an alternative avenue for achieving a high school equivalent diploma among the illiterate adult population through its existing adult specific curriculum. We are doing this by introducing our own incentive program. The adverse issues confronting the implementation of the program in the fringe Barangays of Cagayan De Oro are the low rate of participation among the illiterate adult population and the low level of survival and/or retention among those who choose to participate. Rough estimates in the concerned areas indicate very low participation in the ALS program. Of those who avail of it, only very few actually commit to graduate. Insofar as the goal of attaining the highest participation among the total number of   potential beneficiaries is concerned, the ALS program translates into a dismal percentage of the estimated success rate. On closer assessment, the identified causes for this mediocre success rate appear to be the lack of incentives to avail of or sustain participation to the ALS program due to economic constraints. These constraints are characterized as follows: 1) Participation in ALS education implies unacceptable daily income loses among potential participants. In the fringe hinterland localities where incomes are hardly sufficient to meet minimum daily living costs, participation during school days will mean abdicating daily incomes needed to insure the provision of basic living needs like the day’s food supply. 2) ALS Participation also implies incurring added education related costs. While enrolment, facilities and learning materials are free, travel costs and other miscellaneous allowances are required to insure that participants are physically present and who’s mental and health dispositions are conducive to learning. Sustaining these costs for repeated learning sessions are often enough to deter potential participants. Scope and Limitation of the Paper There is a wide choice of perspectives and plenty of levels to approach ALS as a topic. In this paper, the existing ALS program we are attempting to improve using our version of the same are the following eleven hinterland fringe Barangays in the 1st Congressional District of Cagayan de Oro City: Pagalungan, Tagpangi, Taglimao, Tuburan, Pigsag-an, Tumpagon, Bayanga, Mambuaya, Dansolihon, Tignapoloan and Besigan. Our focus customers here are the resident adults (18 years old and above) in the said areas. The ALS’ Assessment and Evaluation phase, Accreditation and Equivalency processes (ALS A & E), livelihood programs, and its curriculum are only part of the paper as an assumption that they are there, functioning as they should. Because our topic is not focused on them, they are not discussed here. And of course we think they are very important since we are drawing our strategies from the existing overall mechanism of how the ALS program works. We are asking the questions, â€Å"How   do we increase the participants and make them commit to actually finish the program?† and â€Å"How do we motivate those employed or volunteered directly in the ALS program to participate and meet their objectives?† These are the concerns that this group is attempting to manage. Figure 1 shows the Strategic Framework of the proposed ALS Incentive Program. The focus of our P.P.B.S. is to add a set of incentives to continually help improve the mechanisms that operate ALS. The Planning, Programming, and Budgeting are at work separately along this framework. It is our desire that this model will cascade smoothly to our target learners. Vision: Substantial reduction of illiteracy among adults in the fringe Barangays of Cagayan de Oro City through the Alternative Learning System and where human dignity is restored thereby resulting to personal growth and community development. Mission To improve the ALS’s participation and completion rate among the illiterate adult population in the concerned areas of Cagayan de Oro City through the participation incentive program. Figure 2 shows the S.W.O.T. Analysis for the proposed ALS Incentive Program. The program’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats will help clarify the present situation and strategies that can be developed out from them, and will determine the salient indicators of success, the abilities of the program managers and stakeholders and the available skills and resources. The S.W.O.T. Analysis conducted is grounded on knowing â€Å"Where the program is now?† and in identifying â€Å"What are the strategies needed to attain its goals?† The Strengths and Weaknesses are inside factors within the control of those involved in the ALS organization (inside environment). They  are: Strategy, Structure, System, Staff, Skills, Style, and Shared values. On the other hand, Opportunities and Threats are outside influences that impact the ALS organization S and O are strategies that should be executed, given that the Strengths and Opportunities are there. W and O asks the question, â€Å"How can we use our Opportunities to offset or even reverse our Weaknesses?† S and T asks the question â€Å"How can we use our Strengths to offset or even reverse our Threats?† W and T is the combination of Weaknesses and Threats. It shows that they are part of the organization’s identity since no organization is perfect. Because these factors cannot be fixed, it contains strategies that manage or minimize the damage caused by them. Figure 3 shows the organizational structure of the proposed ALS Incentive Program. Figure 4 shows the Strategy Map of the proposed ALS Incentive Program. The objectives shown in the map have a causal relationship as traced by arrows along each of the different functions in the ALS Incentive Program, namely: Financial Perspective, Learning and Growth, Internal Process, and Client Perspective. As you can see, the goals here are Increase Participation, Increase Completion, and Decrease Illiteracy. And each of these is supported by our proposed incentives. The Balanced Scorecard in Figure 5 below will elaborate on the different incentives mentioned in this paper so far. It will also describe how the objectives from different functions in the ALS Incentive Program can be achieved by concentrating on and satisfying its three parts: Measures, Targets, and Initiatives. The Balanced Scorecard will be a helpful guide in carrying out the functions of each member of ALS in helping themselves and their learners keep motivated and be on track towards achieving their goals. Conclusion While this group acknowledges the current efforts made by the LGU’s, DepEd, BALS, and ALS in their cooperation and hardwork, the daily operations to help reduce illiteracy in the involved barangays is still far from what they should be. Our emphasis here, as already mentioned, is the introduction and proper management of an incentive program in the ALS program. As what we have presented, we believe this would optimize the operations in each step  and level of the program. And thus, in the long run, the reduction and even total elimination of illiteracy is then achieved. It is our hope that this P.P.B.S. be part of the many considerations that may help the functions of the current ALS program.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Classification Essay Students Essay

Being a student in today’s society holds an immense amount of pressure to do one thing: graduate. Thirteen years of school prepare students for the next major steps of their lives. Every student faces many struggles and frustrations before graduation day arrives. One may be able to surmise a few details about a student before they put pencil to paper or even speak. One can also make assumptions about a student based on his or her seating position. Motivation, determination, and concentration will establish a student’s amount of success. The three categories of high school students are underachievers, average students, and overachievers. The first category of students is the underachievers, or the back row. These students lack the characteristics needed to be successful. They are also the ones who think a success is showing up to class. Oftentimes, they will be failing classes and not even bother to hand in assignments. If they do pass their classes, it is with hardly passing grades and little knowledge gained. This typical student can be seen coming late to class with papers spewing out of his unorganized notebook. Work will not be completed on time, if finished at all. He will not participate in class discussions, or he may sleep throughout the period. In some cases, the only thing these students need is a little extra help. Procrastination, poor attendance, and laziness are few of the common characteristics of an underachiever. Underachievers revel in disrupting class and being a general nuisance to all involved. Homework transforms into spitballs and paper airplanes, and there are a multiple excuses prepared for why the assignment is not finished. They do anything possible to get out of class, and can be often found wandering halls, in the bathroom, or in the comfortable chairs in the office. A step above the underachievers are those students that do just enough in order to succeed, the average achievers, middle row. These students are often capable of achieving academic success, but lack motivation. Many athletes fall into this category, and only because they need to be eligible to participate in their respective sport. Choosing not to make any extra effort, they receive average grades and maintain average attendance. They may not stand out in class, but their work is always completed. These students view extra credit opportunities as a waste of time. These mediocre scholars are also the ones who believe that Wikipedia is among the greatest inventions of all time, while turnitin. com is not. Students who contain these characteristics make up the most common category. The final group of students are the overachievers. They sit prim and proper in the front row raising their eager hands. These workaholics are the ones whom teachers adore and whom fellow students despise. They often exceed the expectations of any teachers. They constantly work hard and are active in class. They take notes verbatim of what the teacher says, excel in group discussions, and much to the demise of the other students, raise the academic bar to an unattainable level. Although they are not often the greatest athletes, or the best at communicating with the opposite gender, they separate themselves with their cerebral work ethic. These scholars find reading entertaining, and would much rather solve a Rubik’s cube than run a mile. One of them will be inevitably become Valedictorian, and will give a speech at the podium come graduation day. When analyzing these students, one could be looking at future doctors, engineers, and various activists. Being average is not necessarily a bad thing, and being an overachiever is not necessarily a good thing either. The student with 4. 0 GPA in high school may not go on to become the neuroscientist everyone thought she would, while the student that took three gym classes may become a famous athlete. Of course, there is leeway for fluctuation in this formula of judgement. Ultimately, it is up to each individual to decide which type of student he or she will become: part of the back row, part of the middle row, or part of the front row.

Use tables or graphs to illustrate the price stability performance of Japan Essay Example

Use tables or graphs to illustrate the price stability performance of Japan Essay Japans economic slump, which began with a stock market cr...