Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Old Man And The Sea By Ernest Hemingway - 1599 Words

August 21, 2017 Pulitzer Prize Judging Board Columbia University 709 Pulitzer Hall 2950 Broadway New York, NY USA 10027 Dear Pulitzer Prize Judging Board: The Old Man and the Sea by American author, Ernest Hemingway deserved the Pulitzer Prize it received because of the author s use of craft elements, the realness of all of the characters and events, and the lasting themes that are relevant to the year it was written that were created by this realness, which in turn created a legacy. The first reason The Old Man and the Sea deserved its Pulitzer Prize is because of the author’s use of craft elements such as style, language, descriptions, usage of personification and similes, as well as natural insights to common knowledge. Ernest†¦show more content†¦When the old man had gaffed her and clubbed her, holding the rapier bill with its sandpaper edge and clubbing her across the top of her head until her colour turned to a colour almost like the backing of mirrors†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (49). These descriptions effortlessly use similes and personification as well, â€Å"â€Å"...his tail was sharp as a scythe†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (49), â€Å"Why did they make birds so delicate and fine as those sea swallows when the ocean can be so cruel? She is kind and very beautiful. But she can be so cruel and it comes so suddenly and such birds that dipping and hunting, with their small sad voices are made too delicately for the sea,† (29). In the midst of all the element s insights into the common knowledge a fisherman has, as well as common knowledge of the main character’s town, is inserted into the book in a way that add rather than takes away, â€Å"It was considered a virtue not to talk unnecessarily at sea and the old man had always considered it so and respected it. But now he said his thoughts aloud many times since there was no one that they could annoy,† (39). All of these are exceptional and add to the book rather than take away or distract the reader. They actually bring the reader into the book more with the realness created by the author’s craft elements. Another reason The Old Man and the Sea deserved its Pulitzer Prize is because of the realness of all of the characters and events in the book. HemingwayShow MoreRelatedThe Old Man And The Sea By Ernest Hemingway1744 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"The Old Man and The Sea† by Ernest Hemingway is a story about an old man named Santiago who has to overcome many obstacles in his time at sea and in life (Hemingway). Despite being a fisherman, Santiago has not caught fish in 84 days and is faced by numerous dilemmas and shortcomings as things seem to always go wrong for him (Hemingway). This paper provides an analysis of the novel by interpreting it as a secular humanist epic. This paper hypothesizes that the character of Santiago is guided byRead MoreThe Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway1734 Words   |  7 Pages Ernest Hemingway was a man among men. He painted his life through written words. In his life Hemingway experienced events that would change him and shape the man that h e was. Hemingway wrote about his time he spent in World War I in his first novel, The Sun Also Rises, and in his last novel, The Old Man and the Sea, he writes about his fishing exploits, both of which Hemingway experienced himself. By comparing these two works that he has written, a reader can perceive his linguistic style and theRead MoreThe Old Man And The Sea By Ernest Hemingway1952 Words   |  8 Pagesinternal conflicts; there are many internal and external conflicts in the novella. One of the main conflicts is that Santiago couldn’t catch the marlin. This is resolved by Santiago eventually catching the fish three days after he returned back to sea after he had an eighty four day unsuccessful streak; this solution is believable because he was determined to catch the fish which he did. A secondary conflict in this novella was that Santiago began to talk to himself because Manolin is no longer withRead MoreThe Old Man And The Sea By Ernest Hemingway2056 Words   |  9 Pagesâ€Å"The Old Man and The Sea† by Ernest Hemingway Plot Summary: â€Å"The Old Man and The Sea† relates the difficult life of an old Cuban fisherman that struggles in his profession for a long period of time until he catches the biggest fish in his life. The story begins presenting readers the fact that Santiago, the old fisherman, has been eighty-four days without catching a fish. This uncomfortable situation leads Manolin, a teenager who works with Santiago, to leave him under his father’s command.Read MoreThe Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway Essay589 Words   |  3 PagesThe Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway After reading this novel, The Old Man and the Sea, by Ernest Hemingway, I was confused about something the old man kept repeating. During the course of the book, the old man, Santiago, refers to having gone out to far to catch the fish. To me, this sounds as though he is making excuses for himself as to why he could not bring the fish in. On the other hand, he may have realized that he should not have gone out so far because it was not worth it forRead MoreAn Old Fisherman in The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway939 Words   |  4 Pages On July 21, 1899, Ernest Hemingway was born to Grace Hall-Hemingway and Clarence Edmonds Hemingway in Oak Park, Illinois. He started off his writing career in high school, when he was writing sports articles for the high school newspaper. From there, he moved on to writing for the Kansas City Star, where he learned to write in his unique short sentences, declarative, writing style. From journalism, Hemingway moved on to the military life an d met a nurse in Milan that was his inspiration for â€Å"ARead MoreErnest Hemingway s A Old Man And The Sea1588 Words   |  7 PagesErnest Hemingway, an Intense Macho Bullfighting Woodsman of an author, If you met him in person you would not beleive him when he told you he s an author. However Ernest Hemingway is a very accomplished author, well known as the Chronicler of the lost generation, and for his Pulitzer Prize winning Old Man and the Sea. Hemingway also was known for his collection of short stories, like In Another Country and The Snows of Kilimanjaro, as with many of his stories these two are set in 2 places he hasRead MoreErnest Hemingway s The Old Man And The Sea942 Words   |  4 PagesSome believe to live is to endure, and in Ernest Hemingway s The Old Man and the Sea This idea is explored in a simplistic style of writing called Iceberg Theory, a style unique to Hemingway. In this powerful, yet simple novel Ernest Hemingway eloquently portrays the hardships of the average man. Old Man and the Sea is based on an old man named Santiago and his battle with a giant Marlin in the middle of the sea. The old man s experience with the marlin is one of misfortune, pride, and accomplishmentRead MoreThe Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway Essay983 Words   |  4 PagesThe Old Man and the Sea There is a scene in Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea, when after a shark has taken a big chunk about forty pounds off Santiago prize marlin catch, Santiago begin to doubt whether he should have gone out to sea and wishes that he had never hooked the fish and was alone in bed with his newspaper (103). Immediately after the Santiago says, â€Å"But man is not made for defeat a man can be destroyed but not defeated† (103). The life of Ernest Hemingway intertwines to theRead MoreRelationship Between The Old Man And The Sea And Ernest Hemingway1075 Words   |  5 Pagesthe author of The Old Man and The Sea, Ernest Hemingway. Gertrude, an American novelist, poet, playwright and art collector, served as a mentor for Ernest. The novelist also served as a godmother to Ernest along with her companion, Alice B. Toklas. Ernest Hemingway used his experience with Gertrude in his 1952 book, The Old Man and The Sea. Santiago and Manolin share a relationship similar to Ernest Hemingway and Gertrude Stein. Throughout The Old Man and The Sea, Ernest Hemingway provides many details

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Essay about Myth and Magic Realism in One Hundred Years...

â€Å"He enjoyed his grandmothers unique way of telling stories. No matter how fantastic or improbable her statements, she always delivered them as if they were the irrefutable truth† (Wikipedia, 2011). Experiences are particular instances of one personally encountering or undergoing something and in these moments of time life changes for the best or the worst and memories are formed. These recollections such as riding your first bicycle, going to the seventh grade or even listening to the many stories your grandmother use to tell could be a heartbreaking or breathtaking experience. Most people, depending on the situation, dance around these moments just like Gabriel Garcia Marquez did in One Hundred Years of Solitude. The discovery of†¦show more content†¦Myths are considered primal legends that our grandparents use to share to intrigue us and keep our attention. They are legends that get passed down from generation to generation with origins of life events, sign ificant situations or fundamental beliefs. Fables, as they are also called, allow us to extend our dreams and open that door to hidden thoughts whether they are true or make believe. â€Å"Myths allow us to glimpse the uncertain† (MacEwan, 2009). When I think of myths, I think of the Greek Gods, mythical creatures such as dragons, loch ness monster and Bigfoot. â€Å"An essential ingredient is to allow your intuition and instinct to go to work unfettered as things are not always what they seem† (MacEwan, 2009) as Gabriel Marquez did in One Hundred Years of Solitude. The use of myth in this novel allows us to look deeper into the meaning of what Marquez was trying to convey. The chosen words or phrases help provide images for us to see into and be a part of the mythical experience of the Buendia family. For instance, â€Å"It rained for four years, eleven months, and two days† (Marquez, 315). Calculated, this is approximately 1,792 days. This is truly a myth because the earth would get so moist it would create flash floods, landslides and mudslides. Basically Macondo, depending on how stable their houses were, would no longer be standing. Another example is the levitation act of Father Nicanor. â€Å"†¦Father Nicanor rose six inches above the level of theShow MoreRelated Use Irony and Magic Realism in One Hundred Years of Solitude1098 Words   |  5 PagesUse Irony and Magic Realism in One Hundred Years of Solitude  Ã‚         In Marquezs One Hundred Years of Solitude, the realistic description of impossible events is an example of both irony and magic realism. Irony is the use of words, images, and so on, to convey the opposite of their intended meaning. Garcia Marquez employs irony on several levels. Sometimes a single word, such as a characters name, suggests something opposite to the characters personality: for example, Prudencio AguilarRead MoreMagical Realism2274 Words   |  10 PagesTwo of the most widely recognized major contributors to Latin American Literature are Gabriel Garcà ­a Mà ¡rquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude and Isabel Allende’s Eva Luna. Both are written in the genre of magical realism, a literary form that describes fantasy and imaginary events in such a way that it becomes believable and real to the reader. Specifically, these books describe the geopolitical turmoil of Latin America during the early twentieth century and the mid twentieth century; respectivelyRead MoreThe Theory, History, and Development of Magical Realism Essay examples3188 Words   |  13 PagesMagical realism is more a litera ry mode than a distinguishable genre and it aims to seize the paradox of the union of opposites such as time and timelessness, life and death, dream and reality and the pre-colonial past and the post-industrial present. It is characterized by two conflicting perspectives. While accepting the rational view of reality, it also considers the supernatural as a part of reality. The setting in a magical realist text is a normal world with authentic human characters. It isRead MoreMagic Realism in Como Agua Para Chocolate2382 Words   |  10 PagesMagic realism Magic realism (or magical realism) is a literary genre in which magical elements appear in an otherwise realistic setting. As used today the term is broadly descriptive rather than critically rigorous. The term was initially used by German art critic Franz Roh to describe painting which demonstrated an altered reality, but was later used by Venezuelan Arturo Uslar-Pietri to describe the work of certain Latin American writers. The Cuban writer Alejo Carpentier (a friend of Uslar-Pietri)Read MoreEssay on 20th Century Latin American Literature3323 Words   |  14 Pagesnations we call Latin America† and today Latin Americans â€Å"extend their literature in the world†¦no longer concerned about whether or not they express America or their representative countries† (Martinez 1982: 64).However, translating literature from one language to another for the benefit of international audiences is a tricky political process, and the history of the evolving Latin American novel testifies to the wild dynamics of language and human identity in a cross cultural world. â€Å"It is a truismRead MoreMetz Film Language a Semiotics of the Cinema PDF100902 Words   |  316 PagesChapter 9. Mirror Construction in Fellini s 8 1/2, 228 Chapter 10. The Saying and the Said: Toward the Decline of Plausibility in the Cinema? 235 Notes, 253 A Note on the Translation by Bertrand Augst When Film Language was translated, nearly twenty years ago, very few texts about semiotics and especially film semiotics were available in English. Michael Taylor s translation represents a serious effort to make Metz s complicated prose, filled with specialized vocabularies, accessible to a public unfamiliar

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Conflict Resoluton in the Classroom Free Essays

Running Head: INCORPORATING CONFLICT RESOLUTION 1 Incorporating Conflict Resolution Melinda McCray Concordia University INCORPORATING CONFLICT RESOLUTION 2 As an educator, it is important that I not only know how to effectively deliver the curriculum to my students, but to also be able to effectively manage my classroom. Managing the classroom is not just writing disciplinary referrals or assigning detentions, but also includes making the proactive decision to prevent and mitigate conflicts as they arise in the classroom. While all conflicts obviously cannot be prevented, teachers must be instrumental in guiding students to resolving their conflicts. We will write a custom essay sample on Conflict Resoluton in the Classroom or any similar topic only for you Order Now Thomas Lickona (1991) touches on guiding students through conflicts. He writes, â€Å"even if students have the benefit of a conflict curriculum, social skill training†¦ many will still have trouble applying these learnings†¦ In these situations the teacher usually has three tasks: (1) Helping students understand†¦ (2) Helping students work out a fair solution†¦ and (3) Helping children practice the behavioral skills†¦. (294-295). While some of these suggestions may not be applicable to high school students in some instances, I think that Lickona’s suggestions have merit. In my classroom, I could certainly incorporate helping my students practice good behavioral skills. I would definitely focus on the moral aspects of discipline and behavior, because students can relate to how they would like to be treated, using the â€Å"what if† scenario. Morality of mind is always an incentive to encourage a child to behave in the proper way. Community involvement is not always that easy at my school, but using our parent liaison could be a step in that direction. Maybe the liaison could reach out to the parents when teachers cannot. Lickona(1991) suggests that observant teachers know the situations that trigger situations, (295) as one such teacher, using effective conflict resolution strategies such, one-on-one counsel, seating arrangements, and modeling good moral conduct is the way I plan to continue to resolve conflicts as they arise in my classroom and keep the classroom environment safe. References Lickona, T. (1991) â€Å"Educating for Character† How our schools can teach respect and responsibility. New York: NE Bantam Books How to cite Conflict Resoluton in the Classroom, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

To his Coy Mistress, By Andrew Marvell, Sonnet, By Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Sonnet 138, By William Shakespeare Essay Example For Students

To his Coy Mistress, By Andrew Marvell, Sonnet, By Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Sonnet 138, By William Shakespeare Essay To his Coy Mistress, By Andrew Marvell, Sonnet, By Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Sonnet 138, By William Shakespeare, these group of poems reflect both the negative and positive aspects of love. How do the poets you have studied use language and structural choices to affect the readers perceptions of what love is? The traditional stereotypical view of love poetry is a romantic one. The poetry would have: angels, cupids and cherubs. Many poets have made references to the moon in romantic poetry because it is the symbol of everlasting love and purity. The person that the poem is written about is usually compared to objects that are precious and beautiful, for example: roses, diamonds, stars and rubies. The reader expects the poem to consist of rhyming couplets. The reader also expects the language in a love poem to be romantic and positive. We will write a custom essay on To his Coy Mistress, By Andrew Marvell, Sonnet, By Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Sonnet 138, By William Shakespeare specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Many poets have made reference to the moon in romantic poetry because it is the symbol of everlasting love and purity. Both Marvel and Shakespeare deal with love as based on lies that help to progress love. Marvel writes about all the positive things that they would do if they had the time: To walk pass our long loves day. Thou by the Indians Ganges side. Shouldst rubies find: Furthermore Shakespeares Sonnet 138 deals with a lovers relationship that is based on lies: Therefore I lie with her, and she with me, And in our faults by lies we flatterd be. On the other hand E.B.Browning is comparing a love as if it were as true as a religion. A similar technique is used by Shakespeare in Romeo and Juliet in Act 1 Scene 3: If I profain with my unwortiest hand This is a section of speech from the play Romeo and Juliet when Shakespeare compares loves as a religion. Another example of religious references in love poetry is in To his Coy Mistress: I would love you ten years before the flood and you shouldnt, if you please, refuse till the conversion of the Jeus. These two events are given to create a measurement of time meaning that she can keep on refusing him unless she doesnt reject him. Andrew Marvell has presented the poem in a dialectic format, this consists of three parts: a thesis, which is a statement an antithesis, which is a counter statement a synthesis, which is a resolution The thesis of the poem is where the poem is where the poet says: Had we but the world enough, and time, This coyness lady were no crime. The poet is saying that if they had all the time in the world, they could express their love thoroughly. In the anti thesis, the poet writes about how they are running out of time. Times winged chariot is hurringing near. The verb hurrying is used to describe time as a winged chariot to show how quickly time is gaining upon us. The poet moves on to warm us that the only thing that we have to look forward to is the long boring process of death. And yonder all before us lie, Deserts of vast eternity. The synthesis is when the poet reveals his solution is to make the most of their lives and give into their desires while they are still young and energetic. While the youthful hue Sits still on they skin like morning dew, And while thy willing soul transpires At every pore with instant fires, The poet also uses emotions to structure the poem through out the three parts, to show progress of the relationship. The first two stages are about the speaker being separate from his mistress, using words like I and You. At the third stage they unite when he uses words like us, our and we. .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf , .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf .postImageUrl , .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf , .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf:hover , .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf:visited , .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf:active { border:0!important; } .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf:active , .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5d4d2e7e456e08b1e2d73834e46091bf:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Shakespeare othello EssayOn the other hand, Sonnet 138 by William Shakespeare are structured in similar ways. Both have 14 lines with 10 syllables in each line and have a rhyming pattern. However, the rhyming scheme varies in both of the poems. Moreover, both of these sonnets try and work through solution for a problem. In Sonnet by E. B. Browning the poet is trying to explore the different ways to love someone. She begins this with a rhetorical question: How do I love thee? Let me count the ways. William Shakespeare tries to solve his problem of his lover being knowingly untruthful to him. The poets lover is lying to him about his physical appearance to flatter him. This problem is stated in the first line of the poem: When my love swears that she is not made of truth, I do believe her but I know she lies, In comparison to Andrew Marvels To his Coy Mistress, the sonnets are similar because they also use a three part structure. However, only the first and third parts are similar because in the second stage of To his coy mistress, we get both sides of the argument and in the sonnets there is only one side. In the sonnet this is shown by repetition of the phrase I love thee. In Sonnet 138 the poet also shows only one side of the argument into the poem. He shows this through using words like she and her. He then uses connectives to show both sides of the argument, for example: Although, Wherefore and on both sides. The language that is used in Sonnet sounds similar to the terminology that is used within the bible therefore this poem sounds religious to the reader and comes across like a prayer. The religious vocabulary used is made up of the following words: Grace, Praise, Faith, Saints and God. As well as religious language, the words that are used in the poem also fall into two other categories, these are positive and negative, for example: Smiles, tears, Purely, Death and Grief. This variety of both negative and positive words are used to show that the poet will love the person for whom this poem is written lover throughout all the good and bad times of their life The traditional stereotypical features of love poetry can be found in two of the poems that I have studied. Marvel uses the traditional features of love poetry in the thesis (statement) of his poem to give structure to the rest of argument in To His Coy Mistress. Marvel uses features such as lovers walking on a long hot day, he mentions exotic places and precious stones to measure love. He also uses time to measure his love for his mistress. These are all features we would expect to see in love poetry. Furthermore, Browning also adopts the traditional features of love poetry though structure. The repetition of the phrase I love thee sounds like a short poem used in a typical valentines card. However the antithesis and synthesis parts of To His Coy Mistress and Sonnet 138 reject the typical features of a love poem and they try to show a more realistic view. To His Coy Mistress rejects the traditional view of love by persuading the mistress to love him through the fear of death. The reader may see this as a form of bullying into a relationship; when we really expect to see true love to be based on mutual feelings. Sonnet 138 rejects the traditional view of love by showing a relationship that is based on lies. We as readers would expect a good relationship to be based on equal truth and honesty. Throughout this group of poems various structural and linguistic techniques have been used to affect the readers perceptions of love, however they all have a structured conclusion to help the reader form their own opinion.

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Use tables or graphs to illustrate the price stability performance of Japan Essay Example

Use tables or graphs to illustrate the price stability performance of Japan Essay Japans economic slump, which began with a stock market crash in 1989, now lies in its fourth recession in ten years. The Asian banking and financial crisis has had a profound effect on this, the second largest economy in the world. Japanese under performing banks are carrying Yen150 trillion ($1.3 trillion) of bad loans. State-run corporations are dragging productivity down, unemployment is rising and Japanese consumer confidence remains low. Macroeconomic policy is proving highly unstable as Japans illness that of deflation remains predominant. Price stability is defined as the sustained absence of both inflation and deflation. (Mc Aleese: p.294, 2001). Further economic agents can make decisions regarding economic activity without being concerned about the fluctuation of the general price level. Along with effective fiscal policy, the control of government spending, low unemployment levels, controlled interest rates and hence inflation rates, macroeconomic policy is maintained. The most serious aspect of Japans economic sickness is deflation. Japans paralysis, where ineffective control measures have had many negative results, will now be discussed. Price Stability: We will write a custom essay sample on Use tables or graphs to illustrate the price stability performance of Japan specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Use tables or graphs to illustrate the price stability performance of Japan specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Use tables or graphs to illustrate the price stability performance of Japan specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Price stability, or rather instability in Japans case, is characterised by the prolonged presence of deflation. The stock market is hovering around a 19 year low. The Nikkei 225, the most commonly used Share Price Index, had stood at 14 times the Dow through the 1980s. However in February 2002 it dropped below the Dow Jones Industrial for the first time since 1957. Japans persistent decline in the general price level is again indicated by the Consumer Price Index. Prices have shown a 1% fall per annum. These falling price levels have increased real debt burdens. National debt stands at over 130% of GDP (www.economist.com). Also Japans banks are chronically weak and burdened by duff loans of Yen37 trillion, about 7% of GDP. So Japanese banks have been left carrying excess bad loans, forcing them to cut lending. Together with depressed consumer spending it has proved impossible for the Bank of Japan to deliver the negative real interest rates that the economy needs to revive demand. Interest rates in Japan stand at virtually 0%. However most companies are not investing but paying down their debts (mentioned above). This adverse impact on investment is also due to the fact that real long-term interest rates in Japan have reached high percentages. The fact that interest rates stand at zero has kept inefficient firms afloat and delayed restructuring. This has contradicted Japans bust advantage. Structural adjustment and creative destruction can prove positive outcomes of negative fluctuations. However, rigid labour and product markets, along with the Japanese keiretsu relationship have hindered the weeding out of inefficient firms. Simultaneously, low interest rates have led to low inflation rates (-0.6% in 2001). This has reflected weak demand and thus the economic slowdown. These supply-side factors, such as the intensification of global competition and deregulation, have put additional downward pressure on prices. This is contributing to the high debt ratio and subsequent price destruction. This bout of recession and deflation has not only had negative impact on CPI, share prices, investment and inflation but also on property prices. Since 1991, commercial property prices have dropped by an average of 84% in Japans six biggest cities (www.economist.com). Housing demand has also collapsed since 1996. Analysis: It remains evident that Japans economy lies in uncertainty, where consistent unstable price performance has given rise to the lost decade. Its current situation comprises of internal factors (e.g. buyer uncertainty) and external factors (e.g. the U.S. current bubble burst). These counter-cyclical variables have had the following negative effect the decrease in economic activity in Japan has led to the increased unemployment rate (+5.3%), bankruptcies, non-performance loans etc. Analysing Japans current prolonged crisis, it becomes evident that it displays attributes of Keynesian economics. The existing shifts in aggregate demand, the low rate of investment and price rigidities, all clearly display this. Price stability is an indispensable prerequisite to ensure sustainable development of the economy (Masaru Hayami, Governor Bank of Japan). 77 year-old Mr. Hayami however has failed so far to deliver such a position. This political paralysis, where political resistance to reform is demonstrated, is hindering Japans recovery. Again, the current Japanese Prime Minister, Junichiro Koizumi (elected April 2001), who unveiled a series of economic reforms has met with little success against this rigid political system, resistant to reform. Furthermore his termination of Makiko Tanaka (his Foreign Minister) in January 2002, along with his lack of co-operation with Economics Minister, Heizo Takenaka, has left Japan still in search of a cure. Is there Evidence of Inflation or Deflation in Japan at the moment? What problems might be associated with very low inflation or deflation? Deflation is defined as the persistent decline in the general price level of goods and services1. The most common measure of inflation statistics is the Consumer Price Index (CPI). In Japan, this has fallen at a rate of about 1% since 1999. If the GDP Deflator is used this deflationary trend can be traced back to 1995. The difference between potential and actual GDP is called the output gap. This is another indicator of price stability (or instability). Price stability is defined as the sustained absence of deflation (falling prices) and inflation (rising prices). It is fundamental to the second pillar of the new consensus, macroeconomic stability. Therefore policy makers welcome disinflation and low inflation. Owing to the bias2 in constructing CPI indices, an inflation rate of 0-2% has become acceptable. There are certain costs of changing prices regardless of whether these are due to high inflation or deflation. There is a loss in efficiency as menu costs and shoe leather costs are incurred. Additionally, the necessary fiscal and monetary policies required to attain stability are costly. More specifically, why is deflation problematic? Initially, falling prices seem like a good thing and people feel as if they have more money in their pockets to spend. Even those on a fixed income, (state pensions, social welfare) benefit from an increase in real income. In spite of all this, the far-reaching contagion effects of deflation mean it is a phenomenon to be avoided. Rather than spending more on the goods, which they can now afford, a continuous fall in prices means that consumer and investor spending actually slows down. Consumers and businesses are reluctant to buy goods, which they expect to drop in value in the near future. Such speculation curbs investment and saving increases. In an effort to encourage borrowing for investment, nominal interest rates fall and approach zero. Since the nominal interest rate is the opportunity cost of holding money, savings further increase. This fall in investment demand and activity retards economic growth. Furthermore, since the nominal interest rate cannot fall below zero, the real interest rate will always be positive. In times of deflation, the burden of debt therefore increases. It would seem that lenders gain and borrowers lose. The problem for lenders occurs when debt rises too high and borrowers cannot afford repayments. Banks who earn profits through loan repayments cannot attract big borrowers. T his type of debt deflation is the main problem in the Japanese economy today but is also reminiscent of the Great Depression in the 1930s. In times of low economic growth, it is typical to lower the currency value thereby making exports more attractive to foreign investors. However, the low nominal interest rates induced by deflation have caused foreign demand for the Yen to rise. The Yen remains strong and exports remain relatively expensive. On the whole, wages are accepted to be ratchet. This means that even if prices are falling, the nominal wage rate will not fall. Higher debt repayments and squeezed profits mean that the pressure on companies to cut costs is twofold. This leads to a Darwinian shake-out as companies see job cuts as the only option to save on costs. Deflation is clearly at the root of Japans failing economy. Policy makers must now look to the formulation and implementation of an effective plan to fight deflation if there is any hope of a recovery.

Friday, March 6, 2020

5 Super Tips On How to Get Your Resume Noticed

5 Super Tips On How to Get Your Resume Noticed You’ve come of age in the era of social media. Which probably means you assume everything can be done online: networking, socializing, job applications. And that’s more or less true. But there’s one vestige of the old world that will still be crucial to you in finding yourself a satisfying job: a resume. Don’t be fooled into thinking you don’t need one. Everybody does. Do concern yourself with making sure your resume gets in the right hands. It doesn’t have to be perfect; you’ll likely tinker with it for the entirety of your career. But you need to start somewhere. Here are five tips for how to get your resume noticed and read, so you can get that job and get your start.1. Think like a computerYour cover letter and your interview need to be geared towards the human recruiters who’ll be reading it. Your resume, on the other hand, will probably be read first by a search engine. Keep that simple fact in mind and gear your document to get through the machines.2. OptimizePart of this strategy means using the right words to get through the computer programs that will sort your resume. Part of it is simply making sure you’re showing a hiring manager that you can do the job. Start by reverse-engineering the job description and peppering your resume with the keywords necessary to showcase your skills. You can also create a â€Å"core competencies† section at the top and listing your most valuable skills there. And if you have to cheat, and include keywords for skills you don’t quite have, you can try putting them in in white font, so computer searches will pick up on it, but human recruiters won’t see that text.3. Make it easyMake sure to get all the basics covered: school, major, GPA, objective. When writing your objective, err on the side of specifics. Don’t just say you want a great job doing great things; make sure to let the recruiter know you mean business. Be clear about th e location and the industry you’re looking for. Take the guess work out of it.4. Go electronic with your cover letterMore often than not, you’re going to need to email a cover letter rather than sending the traditional hard copy. Again, there’s no guarantee a human is going to see it. But you shouldn’t cut any corners all the same. Start with as personal an opening as possible- whether a friend referred you, or you have a mutual acquaintance, or you have a particular affinity for this particular position. Then use the rest of the message to contextualize the bullet points on your resume. Again, be as specific as possible.5. Think â€Å"means to an end†Your resume doesn’t have to be perfect. It doesn’t have to do everything. But it does need to be attention-grabbing. And it needs to present your brand clearly and effectively to the people who will hire you. Be honest and showcase your unique qualities and talents and you’ll do f ine.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Rise of the middle class in Latin America Research Paper

Rise of the middle class in Latin America - Research Paper Example Venezuela is the most urbanized and largest economy of Latin America whereas Argentina is the second largest and Colombia holds the third position, in terms of GDP (Venezuela Analysis, 2013). Latin America puts huge emphasize on economic integration since the inception of Latin American Free Trade Association and Central American Common Market in 1960s. In fact, the economy has undergone various structural changes due to the effect of a number of economic influences such as World Wars, financial crisis in 2008 and several ongoing civil wars. However, the internal economic development program of this continent has been uninterrupted by the policies taken by the economy such as import substitution by industrialization and public investment on health sector (Balderston, Gonzalez and LÃ ³pez, 2000). All these factors have led the economy to experience population explosion. Moreover, as the education system and employment opportunities began to expand combining with enhanced social secur ity, the economy experienced rise of middle class society in Latin America. The paper will explore the nature and determinates of economic growth and rise of middle class in Latin America, especially concentrating on the three biggest economies of the constitute such as Venezuela, Argentina and Colombia as well as possible consequences of such social transformation. Since decades, poverty continued to be the main challenge for the economy of Latin America. However, after experiencing a long series of stagflation, the population of Latin America started expanding and overtimes the middle class evolved in a major proportion of the population. Prior to this, the demographics of Latin America were characterized by the presence of vulnerable income group, suffering from economic insecurity (LÃ ³pez-Calva and Juarez, 2013). However, over a period of time, economic growth as well as

The Old Man And The Sea By Ernest Hemingway - 1599 Words

August 21, 2017 Pulitzer Prize Judging Board Columbia University 709 Pulitzer Hall 2950 Broadway New York, NY USA 10027 Dear Pul...